The word “Candi” or “temple” refers to the various forms and functions of the building, among which are four worship, religious teaching centers, where the ashes of kings, worship places or gods, bathing and gates. Although its functions vary, in general the function of the temple can not be separated from religious activities, especially Hinduism and Buddhism, in the past. Therefore, the history of the construction of the temple is closely related to the history of the kingdoms and the development of Hinduism and Buddhism in Indonesia, from the 5th century until the 14th century.
Java Island when it stood most of the Hindu and Buddhist kingdom and is the center of government of some kingdoms, it is not surprising that in Java there are more buildings of the temple relics of these kingdoms. In other islands, although there are not many also found some temples, namely on the island of Bali, Sumatra, and Kalimantan
Here is a list of existing temples on the island of Java.
West Java province :
- Candi Cangkuang / Cangkuang Temple, Cangkuang temple is located in Kampung Pulo, Cangkuang Village, Leles District, Garut Regency. Cangkuang Village is surrounded by four large mountains in West Java, which include Mount Haruman, Mount Kaledong, Mount Mandalawangi and Mount Guntur. The name of Cangkuang Temple is taken from the name of the village where the temple is located.
- Bojongmenje Temple, Bojongmenje site is located in Kampung Bojongmenje, Village Cangkuang, District Rancaekek, Bandung regency. Currently, the temple is estimated to have stood on this site is still in the process of research and restoration, so there is no picture of the shape and function of the building at first.
- Cibuaya Temple, This temple is located in Pajaten Village Cibuaya village, District Cibuaya Karawang and at coordinates 06 ° 03 ‘460 “South Latitude and 107 ° 21’ 575” East Longitude. The location of the temple is in the rice field at an altitude between 2-3 meters above sea level, and only about 6 km from the beach.
- Batujaya Site Temple, Batujaya Site Temple is administratively located in two villages, namely Segaran Village, Batujaya Sub-district and Talagajaya Village, Pakisjaya District in Karawang Regency, West Java. The distribution of temples on the Batujaya site is estimated to reach 5 km2. Located in the middle of rice fields and some temples near residential areas such as the temple of Serut or Batujaya VII and the Temple of Sumur or Batujaya VIII. The Batujaya site is at 6 km from the northern coastline of West Java (Ujung Karawang).
Currently, Batujaya temple complex is a rice field and residential area. Most of the ancient buildings in that location are still buried in ‘unur’ or ‘weak duwur’ (land ground poking between rice fields). Until the middle of 2004, the excavations and researches at the Batu Jaya enshrinement complex are still underway under the supervision of the Batujaya Site Research Team from the University of Indonesia.
Province of Central Java :
- Borobudur temple is located in Magelang regency, about 15 km to the southwest of Yogyakarta. The largest Buddhist temple in Indonesia has been world cultural heritage and has been listed in the world heritage list, which was originally numbered 348 and later converted into 582 in 1991. Location Borobudur Temple which is a small hill surrounded by mountains Menoreh, Merapi and Merbabu mountain in the northeast, and Sumbing and Sindoro mountain in the northwest.
- Mendut Temple is located in Mendut Village, Mungkid District, Magelang Regency, Central Java, about 38 km to the northwest of Yogyakarta. Its location is only about 3 km from Borobudur Temple, which Buddhist Temple is estimated to have a close relation with Pawon Temple and Mendut Temple. The three temples are located in a straight line north-south direction.
- Pawon Temple, located in Borobudur Village, Borobudur District, Magelang Regency, Central Java Province. Temple which has another name Brajanalan Temple is located about 2 km to the northeast of Borobudur Temple and 1 km to the southeast of Mendut Temple. The location of Mendut temple, Pawon temple and Borobudur temple located on a straight line underlie the allegation that the three Buddhist temples have a close relationship. In addition to its location, the similarity of sculptural motifs in the three temples also underlies the existence of the relationship between the three. Mr. Poerbatjaraka, even argued that Pawon temple is an upa angga (part of), Borobudur Temple.
- Sewu Temple is located in Hamlet Bener, Bugisan Village, Prambanan Sub-district, Klaten District, Central Java Province. From the city of Yogyakarta is about 17 km to Solo. Sewu Temple is a cluster of temples adjacent to the Prambanan Temple, which is approximately 800 meters south of Rara Jongrang statue.
This temple is estimated to be built in the 8th century, on the orders of the rulers of the Mataram kingdom at that time, namely Rakai Panangkaran (746-784 M) and Hindu Rakai Pikatan. Although the king is Hindu, the Mataram kingdom in the period of strong influence from the Buddhist Syailendra Sangya.
- Dieng Temple is a collection of temples located at the foot of the mountains Dieng, Wonosobo, Central Java. Dieng Temple area occupies the plains at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level, extending north-south direction about 1900 m with a width of 800 m.
Collection of Hindu temples Shiva wing which is estimated to be built between the end of the 8th century until the beginning of the 9th century is allegedly the oldest temple in Java. Until now there has been no written information about the history of Dieng Temple, but experts estimate that the collection of this temple was built on the orders of the kings of Wangsa Sanjaya.
- Bubrah Temple
- Plaosan Temple
- Asu Sengi Temple
- Cetho Temple
- Gedongsanga Temple
- Klero Temple
- Lumbung Temple
- Ngawen Temple
- Pringapus Temple
- Sajiwan Temple
- Selogriyo temple
- Sukuh Temple
- Ngempom Temple
Province of Special Region of Yogyakarta :
- Prambanan Temple,
Prambanan temple is located in Prambanan Park, approximately 17 km to the east of Yogyakarta, precisely in Prambanan Village, Bokoharjo Subdistrict. The location is only about 100 m from the Yogya-Solo highway, so it’s not hard to find it. Part of the tourist area which is located at an altitude of 154 m above sea level is included in the region of Sleman Regency. while others are in Klaten.
Prambanan Temple is the largest Hindu temple in Indonesia. Until now cannot ascertain when this temple was built and on whose command, but strong allegations that Prambanan Temple was built in around the mid-9th century by the king of Wangsa Sanjaya, the King Balitung Maha Sambu. The allegations are based on the contents of the Syiwagrha Inscription found around Prambanan and presently preserved at the National Museum in Jakarta. The inscription dates to 778 Saka (856 AD) was written during the reign of Rakai Pikatan.
Kalasan Temple, located in Kalibening Village, Tirtamani, Sleman Regency, Special Region of Yogyakarta, exactly about 16 km to the east from Yogyakarta city. In Kalasan Inscription it is said that this temple is also called Kalibening Temple, according to the name of the village where the temple is located. Not far from Kalasan temple there is a temple called Candi Sari. Both temples have similarities in the beauty of the building and the fineness of sculpture.
- Ratu Baka Temple,
located about 3 km to the south of Prambanan Temple or about 19 km to the south of the city of Yogyakarta. Ratu Baka Temple area located on a hill with an altitude of ± 195.97 m above sea level, includes two villages, namely Sambirejo Village and Dawung Village.
The site of Queen Baka is actually not a temple, but the ruins of an empire. Therefore, Ratu Baka Temple is often called Kraton Ratu Baka. Called Kraton Baka, because according to the legend of the site is the palace of Queen Baka, father Lara Jonggrang.
- Ijo Temple
- Sari Temple
- Barong Temple
- Sambisari Temple
- Abang Temple
- Banyuniba Temple
- Kedulan Temple
- Gebang Temple
East Java Province :
- Badut Temple
- Bajangratu Temple
- Brahu temple
- Gununggangsir Temple
- Jago Temple, located in Dusun Jago, Tumpang Village, Tumpang District, Malang Regency, exactly 22 km to the east of Malang City. Because of its location in the Village Tumpang, this temple is often also called Tumpang Temple. Locals call it Cungkup.
According to Negarakertagama and Pararaton, the name of this temple is actually Jajaghu. In pupil 41 of the 4th Gatra Negarakertagama it is explained that Wisnuwardhana King who ruled Singasari embraced Shiva Buddhist religion, a religious school which is a blend of Hindu and Buddhist teachings. The flow developed during the reign of Singasari Kingdom, a kingdom located about 20 km from Jago Temple. Jajaghu, which means ‘majesty’, is a term used to refer to holy places.
- Jawi Temple
- Kidal Temple
- Kolom Segaran Temple
- Panataran Temple
- Plumbangan Temple
- Rimbi Temple
- Sadon Temple
- Sawentar Temple
- Singasari temple, located in the Village Candi Renggo, Singosari District, Malang Regency, approximately 9 Km from Malang city towards Surabaya. This temple is also known as Candi Cungkup or Candi Menara, a name which shows that Singasari Temple is the highest temple of its time, at least compared to other temples around it. However, currently in the Singasari area only the remaining Singasari temple, while the other temples have vanished without a trace.
When exactly Singasari temple was founded is still unknown, but archaeologists estimate the temple was built around 1300 AD, as an offering to honor the King Kertanegara of Singasari.
- Surawana Temple
- Tegawangi Temple
- Tikus Temple
- Wringinlawang Temple
Temples on the island of Bali :
In contrast to the temples in Java, temples, or in Bali called the temple, is part of the life of Balinese people who are predominantly Hindus. Pura in Bali is a place of Hindu worship. Every Hindu family has a family temple to worship Hyang Widhi and family ancestors, so the temple on the island of Bali amounts to thousands.
- Pura Taman Ayun is located in Mengwi Village, Badung regency, about 18 km to the west from Denpasar. This temple is very beautiful, in accordance with its name which means the temple in the beautiful garden. In addition to beautiful, Taman Ayun Temple is also considered to have historical value, so in 2002 the Bali Government proposed to UNESCO for this temple is included in the World Heritage List.
Taman Ayun is a Mother Temple (Paibon) for the Mengwi kingdom. This temple was built by King Mengwi, I Gusti Agung Putu, in 1556 Saka (1634 AD).
- Pura Tanah Lot is located on the coastal side of Beraban countryside, Kediri sub-district, Tabanan regency. Tanah Lot which consists of two words, which Land is interpreted as a coral looks like a dike or an island. The Lot or the word Lod has a sea meaning. So Tanah Lot which means small island floating in the sea. The location now referred to as Tanah Lot has been used in the Megalithic period as a sacred place, as evidenced by the presence of menhirs. Based on environmental conditions, the structure of Pura Tanah Lot is built on a regular coral reef angle which consists of only one plain page as the innards. Pura Tanah Lot is located at 30 Km on the west side of Denpasar city and about 11 Km south of Tabanan city. The temple is built of stone with a size of 3 hectares and can be reached within a few minutes on foot, as it is only 20 meters from the beach. This temple is very famous amongst tourist destinations in Bali with spectacular sunset views.
- Pura Uluwatu, is located in Pecatu Village, Kuta District, Badung Regency, Bali, about 30 km to the south of Denpasar city. Uluwatu Temple which is also called Pura Luwur is one of the Pura Sad Kahyangan, which is six Pura Kahyangan considered as a spiritual pillar of the island of Bali.
the development of Uluwatu Temple with Dang Hyang Nirartha, a priest (priest) who came from the Kingdom of Daha (Kediri) in East Java. Dang Hyang Nirartha came to Bali in 1546 AD, which was during the reign of Dalem Waturenggong. The Pedanda then founded Uluwatu Temple on Pecatu Hill. After a spiritual journey around the island of Bali, Dang Hyang Nirartha returned to Pura Uluwatu
Temples on Sumatra Island:
The temples on the island of Sumatra are not as numerous as in Java Island. Very little information is known about the existence of these temples. In addition, generally, the location of the temple is quite far from the city, so not many people who know of its existence or visit there.
- Muara Takus temple is located in the village of Muara Takus, Tigabelas Koto Kampar Sub-district, Kampar District, Riau Province. The distance from Pekanbaru, the capital of Riau Province, about 128 Km. The journey to Muara Takus Village can only be done by road from Pekanbaru to Bukittinggi to Muara Mahat. From Muara Mahat via a small road to Muara Takus Village. Muara Takus temple complex, the only historical temple in Riau. This Buddhist temple is proof that Buddhism once flourished in this region. Nevertheless, archaeologists have not been able to determine exactly when this temple was founded.
- Tanjungmedan temple is an archaeological site located in Dusun Tanjungmedan, West Sumatra. This site has long been known by the local community, but only around the 1990s began the restoration of the temple by the government. According to estimates, this temple is a relic of Hindu or Buddhist culture. This is corroborated by the naming of the place where the temple is located which is called Biaro (monastery, monastery). Residents around the temple today are all Muslims and do not know the history of this temple.
- Muaro Jambi temple. The Muaro Jambi Archaeological Complex is the largest Hindu-Buddhist temple complex in Indonesia that is most likely a relic of the Sriwijaya Kingdom and the Malay Kingdom. Since 2009 Muaro Jambi Temple Complex has been nominated to UNESCO to become a World Heritage Site.
Biaro Bahal temple. Bahal Temple is located in Bahal Village, Padang Bolak District, South Tapanuli District, North Sumatra, which is about 3 hours drive from Padangsidempuan. This temple is the largest temple complex (in a local term called biaro) in the province of North Sumatra because it covers the area of Bahal I, Bahal II and Bahal III temples.
Bahal Temple is only part of the temples of Padanglawas which means temples located in wide fields that include, among others: Temple Pulo, Temple Barumun, Singkilon Temple, Sipamutung Temple, Aloban Temple, Rondaman Temple Dolok, Bara Temple, Temple Magaledang , Sitopayan Temple and Nagasaribu Temple. The possibilities, paddy fields, and settlements around the temples were once a vast field. Of the many temples Padanglawas only Bahal Temple that has been completed, Sipamutung temple and temple Pulo is in the process of renovation, while other temples are still a ruin.
- Bumi Ayu temple is the only enshrinement complex in South Sumatra. The temple area of Bumi Ayu is known as the Hindu temple sites of the Shiva stream. From the excavations of the archaeologists, the temple complex of Bumi Ayu is the largest Hindu temples outside Java, and from the findings, it can be concluded that these temples are copies of Prambanan Temple in Central Java.
Temples on Kalimantan island :
- Candi Agung, is a small Hindu temple site located in the area of Malang River, district of Amuntai Tengah, Hulu Sungai Utara, South Kalimantan. This temple is estimated to be a relic of the Kingdom of the State of Dipa whose existence is contemporaneous with the Majapahit Kingdom.
- Agung Amuntai Temple is a relic of the Kingdom of the State Dipa Khuripan built by Empu Jatmika century XIV AD. From this kingdom finally gave birth to the Kingdom of Daha in the State and Kingdom of Banjarmasin. According to the story, the Hindu Kingdom of Dipa State stood in 1438 at the intersection of three streams. Tabalong, Balangan, and Negara.
- Tanjungpura temple is located in the village of New Land which is famous for the name of the old continent, in the district. Continent Kayong Ketapang District. The location of this temple on the edge of the river pawan. The name Tanjungpura is a temporary name, because of the results of the study is not yet known. Candi Tanjungpura allegedly as the center of the origin of the ancient Tanjung Pura Kingdom which had once prevailed in the 13th-14th century. Looking at the shape and structure of the temple made of red brick, Tanjungpura temple is similar to the temples in East Java.
- Laras temple is a small temple site located in the village of Candi Laras, South Kalimantan Province, which was found in a location called a population called Tanah Tinggi. On the site of this temple are found pieces of statue Batara Guru holding cupu, Nandini, and linga. Everything is stored in Museum Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru. The Ancient site of the Temple of Laras is estimated to be built in 1300 AD by Jimutawahana, a descendant of Dapunta Hyang of Sriwijaya kingdom. Jimutawahana is what is thought to be the ancestor of Tapin residents.
Kutai Kingdom Heritage, the name “Kutai” is taken from the name of the city where there are many inscriptions showing the existence of the Hindu kingdom in the past, that is in the town of Kutai, East Kalimantan. This is because none of the inscriptions mention the name of the kingdom.
So many temples in Indonesia, especially in Java, that is why Indonesia is called a country with a thousand temples.